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Sperm production problems are related to issues with the production or maturation of sperm, resulting in a lower number of sperm, poor quality sperm, or even the absence of sperm in the semen. These problems can be caused by genetic factors, hormonal imbalances, infections, or environmental factors such as exposure to toxins. Below are some types of male factor infertility.


A low concentration of sperm can be caused by various factors, such as hormonal imbalances, genetic disorders, infections, or lifestyle factors like poor diet, smoking or excessive alcohol consumption.


Sperm motility is important for fertilisation because it allows the sperm to move through the female reproductive tract and reach the egg. Low sperm motility can be caused by many factors linked to lifestyle, such as obesity or exposure to environmental toxins. Some men also have a genetic cause that prevents sperm from swimming.



Sperm morphology refers to the size and shape of the sperm. For fertile men, the majority of sperm are the wrong shape. However, with male infertility, if less than 4% sperm are the normal shape, then the chance of fertilisation is less.


Retrograde ejaculation occurs when the muscles that normally control the flow of semen out of the penis do not function properly, causing the semen to be ejaculated backwards into the bladder. This can be caused by certain medications, nerve damage, or surgery. However, we may be able to simply retrieve sperm from the urine. This avoids the need for surgery and the sperm can be used for fertilisation. See this link for a case report when we helped retrieve sperm to help a couple conceive.



Antisperm antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to sperm mixing with the blood. These antibodies can interfere with sperm motility and function, making it difficult for the sperm to fertilise an egg. Antisperm antibodies can be caused by infection, injury, or surgery (including vasectomy reversal).


Azoospermia is a condition where there is no sperm present in the semen. This can be caused by a blockage in the reproductive system or a problem with sperm production.


Male factor infertility can be a complex issue with various underlying causes. The production of healthy sperm is crucial for achieving fertilisation. Any issues with sperm quality or quantity can lead to difficulty conceiving. Male factor infertility can have various underlying causes and it is important to identify the specific issue in order to determine the best treatment approach.


With advancements in reproductive medicine, many couples are able to overcome male factor infertility and achieve their goals of starting a family.

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